School failure and absenteeism Factors

Main factors as associated with early leaving:

(a) family background:

(i) migration or ethnic minority origin;

(ii) lower socioeconomic status of parents;

(iii) parental attitudes towards education;

(b) individual characteristics (not education related):

(i) gender;

(ii) health situation;

(iii) low self-esteem;

(iv) conflictual relationships with adults;

(c) individual’s education pathway:

(i) disengagement from learning;

(ii) absenteeism;

(iii) class repetition;

(iv) low academic achievement;

(v) negative perception of school/education;

(d) school and classroom climate:

(i) conflict with teachers;

(ii) bullying;

(e) labour market attraction.

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